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论坛精英会员英雄勋章-铜一级勇气勋章

发表于 2018-6-30 18:31:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 火心 于 2018-6-30 18:47 编辑

C2内容部分翻译

原作者百度贴吧:无数次瞠目结舌


英文不好,但大的错误应该没有。一些废话就用blabla带过。


命令与控制COMMAND & CONTROL(C2)
The concept of moving and actingon information is called Command and Control, or “C2” for short. Arguably, C2is the single most important aspect of a combined arms force operating in thefield. Its ability to pass information up and down the Chain of Command largelydetermines that force’s opportunities and the options available to it.
命令与控制指的是部队的移动和行为,简称C2,对战场上多兵种指挥而言,C2是唯一最重要的方面。指挥链上传下达巨量信息的能力决定了部队的有利条件和行动选项。
Note: the C2 rules applied in CM:BN varyslightly depending on which Skill level you’re playing. This chapter assumesthe Elite, skill, with all the rules in full effect. At Veteran level, some ofthe restrictions imposed by the C2 rules are lifted or at least are not asstrict, while playing at Basic Training level essentially means C2 is not activeat all.
【这一段说的是C2在不同模拟度下面的体现程度。最高模拟度当然是完全体现。其他等级恕我不关心。】
There are two primary components ofC2: communication methods and control procedures. In practical terms, thismeans a break in communications reduces the ability for the force to functionproperly, but good communications don’t matter if the commanders can’t leveragethe information to achieve an advantage.
C2有两个构成要素:通讯和控制程序。这意味着通讯中断会削弱部队完全行使职责的能力,但如果指挥官不能利用信息达成有利目标,好的通讯也不重要。


通讯方式COMMUNICATION METHODS

C2 methods are divided up intodifferent groups and displayed in the Unit Info Panel:




The methods, from left to right,are:这些方式从左到右依次是:
Visual Contact (units within LOSof each other)视觉联系(各单位在彼此的视线内)
Eye Contact - close proximity目视-近
Eye Contact – distant目视-远
Audio Contact (units able to heareach other)听觉联系(各单位彼此听得见)
Voice Contact人声联系
Radio Contact无线电联系
Like any sort of chain, the Chain of Command is only as strong as its weakest C2link. Having all three methods available to a unit at the same time allows forthe best possible results, while having none at all means a break in the Chainof Command. A break means the higher and lower parts of the chain are no longerconnected and therefore unable to communicate with each other. This can havedisastrous game results.
像所有种类的链条一样,指挥链的强度取决于最弱的一环。对一个单位能同时使用全部通讯方式,就有机会达成最佳结果,一种都没有意味着指挥链中断,上下级单位失去联系而不能够通讯,有可能带来灾难性的游戏结果。


维持C2环MAINTAINING C2 LINKS
The more types of C2 links unitshave, the better chance they have of maintaining connections. Just rememberthat not all C2 methods are of equal quality. Range is quite important becausethe farther away units are from each other the greater the chance they willexperience breaks in communications. The inherent fragility of the method isalso important since some are inherently more robust.
单位拥有的C2环越多,就越好维持联系。记住不是所有C2方式的质量都一样。范围相当重要,因为单位相距越远,就越有可能发生通讯中断。联系方式本身的弱点也很重要,一些方式会相对牢靠。
All units have the opportunityto establish Eye and Voice Contact, but to do so means keeping units fairlyclose and in plain sight (LOS) of each other. These are the most reliable,robust forms of C2 possible. Unfortunately, from a tactical standpoint, havingunits bunched up is generally not a good idea, nor is it even necessarilyphysically possible.
所有单位都有条件建立目视和人声联系,但这样做意味着要让单位相当靠近并且在彼此的视线内。这是C2可以有的最可靠最牢固的形态。遗憾的是,从战术的角度来说,把单位聚在一起通常不是个好主意,甚至在物理上也不能必然实现。
Radio Contact is the most basictechnological means of overcoming these problems, however, radios are trickythings to operate effectively as distances increase, and good radios are quiteexpensive. CM:BN includes two major types of radios: small handheld radios(e.g. for the US side this is the SRC-
536 AM Frequency "Handie-Talkie"), and large backpack radios (e.g.,for the US side, the SRC-300 FM "Walkie-Talkie").
无线电联系是克服这些问题的最基本的技术,然而,随着距离增加,无线电实际操作复杂,并且好的无线电相当昂贵。CM:BN包含两种主要的无线电:小型手持无线电,和大型背包式无线电。


控制程序CONTROL PROCEDURES
CM:BN goes beyond justsimulating the hardware to maintain contact on the battlefield, but alsoattempts to realistically track what happens with the information passed up anddown the chain. A rifle squad reporting an enemy contact to its platoon HQ willtrigger an entirely different response than if it is broadcasting theinformation through the battalion radio net! That’s because the platoon HQ isset up and has procedures in place guiding it what to do in this situation. Forthe Battalion HQ, this piece of information is largely useless.
CM:BN不仅仅模拟装备如何在战场上维持联系,还尝试真实跟踪信息在指挥链上下传递时会发生的情况。比起通过营部无线电网络传播,步兵班向排部报告接敌会引发完全不同的反应。因为排部被设定并有适当的程序引导它在这种情况下怎么做。对于营部,这点信息在很大程度上没什么用。
What this means in game terms isthat units can effectively only trace command-and-control to theirimmediately-superior HQs. Higher HQs may fulfill this role only to a limitedextent. If a squad or team is out of contact with its immediate superior(usually a platoon HQ) then its company or battalion HQ may provide voice andclose visual contact, but not radio or distant-visual contact. This simulatesthat a higher HQ can't babysit a large number of units more than one levellower in the organization, and it means that higher HQs can't be used in agamey way to make platoon HQs unnecessary, but they can step in and providecommand-and-control in a limited radius in emergency situations.
在游戏规则中这意味着单位只能有效追溯C2到他们的直接上级指挥部。更高级别的指挥部只是最低限度地发挥它的作用。如果一个班组跟它的直接上级(通常是排部)脱离了联系,那么它的连部或营部可以提供人声和近距离视觉联系,但没有无线电或远距离视觉联系。




信息共享INFORMATION SHARING
The better organized andconnected a force is, the better able it is to communicate critical pieces ofinformation between units. Though it is not obvious to the player that theinformation itself is moved around, the results of it are. There are threeprimary benefits of good organization and communication: spotting of enemyunits, calling for support, and maintaining discipline.
One of the most importantaspects of Combat Mission is its system of revealing information about enemyunits, such as position, type, and actions. Unlike most other games, CM:BN useswhat we call Relative Spotting instead of Absolute Spotting. In an AbsoluteSpotting system, when an individual friendly unit “senses” something, thatinformation is instantly, and perfectly, available to all units on its side. Itdoesn’t matter where the other units are or what sorts of communicationscapabilities they have. Relative Spotting, on the other hand, keeps the unit’s“sensed” information from moving to other units unless there is some way ofcommunicating it to them. In other words, when you click on a unit in CM:BN youget to see what it sees relative to what it knows. If the unit is isolated fromthe Chain of Command it wouldn’t be able to target something it didn’t spotitself, for example.
Good quality C2 between theright units becomes of paramount importance when Air or Artillery Support arerequired. Not all units are equally capable, or even able, to direct such firemissions. Picture that critical unit, with the ability to possibly change thecourse of the battle, cut off from the Chain of Command. How can it call inSupport if it can’t communicate with anybody?Well, it can’t!
一个部队越好的组织和联系,就能越好地相互沟通关键信息。信息传递的过程对玩家而言并不明显,但结果很明显。好的组织和沟通有三个重要的益处:定位敌军单位,呼叫支援,维持纪律。
CM最重要的其中一个方面是揭示敌军单位信息的系统,比如位置,类型,和行动。不像其他大部分游戏,CM:BN使用相对定位代替绝对定位。在绝对定位系统中,当个别友军单位识别了某物,这信息即刻完美地被所有本方单位获取。其他单位在什么位置或使用什么类型的联系方式,都无所谓。另一方面,相对定位系统要求一定的沟通途径,才能把识别信息传达给其他单位。换句话说,当你点击一个单位,你看到的是它所看到并了解到的。例如,如果一个单位脱离了指挥链,那它不能瞄准未曾亲自定位的目标。
请求空中和炮火支援的时候,正确单位之间高质量的C2变得至关重要。不是所有单位都同样胜任(有些单位甚至都没有能力)指引这样的火力支援任务。Balabalabala
Note: On-map mortars can fireindirect even if they are out of
command & control and lack a radio, provided that the
spotter is within 50m.
即使脱离了C2并且没有无线电,只要负责定位目标的单位在50米内,地图上的迫击炮也能够间接射击。
Lastly, maintaining C2 isimportant for keeping unit cohesion intact. Units tend to get jumpy when theydon’t know what the friendly units around them are up to, or where theirsuperiors are, or what the enemy might be trying to do at that moment. WithoutC2, the imagination can run a bit wild,so to speak, and the unit may beimagining the worst scenario. Perhaps all its buddies withdrew and forgot totell it to pull back? Maybe the HQ was wiped out and nobody higher up knowsabout those tanks coming down the road, and therefore no help is on the way? Well-disciplinedunits hold up better under these circumstances, of course, but every unit hasits breaking point. If it has contact with its fellow forces and feelssupported, things are less stressful.
最后,要保持单位完美凝聚,维持C2很重要。如果不知道周围的友军在做什么,或者上级在哪里,或者敌军当前可能在采取什么行动,单位就容易变得神经脆弱。脱离了C2,就会胡思乱想,可以说,单位可能会想象最坏的情境。Blablablabla训练有素的单位在这种情况下能较好撑住,但所有单位都有它的极限。Blablablabla

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论坛精英会员英雄勋章-铜一级勇气勋章

 楼主| 发表于 2018-6-30 18:37:45 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 火心 于 2018-6-30 18:39 编辑

无线电RADIOS



信息共享INFORMATION SHARING
The better organized andconnected a force is, the better able it is to communicate critical pieces ofinformation between units. Though it is not obvious to the player that theinformation itself is moved around, the results of it are. There are threeprimary benefits of good organization and communication: spotting of enemyunits, calling for support, and maintaining discipline.
One of the most importantaspects of Combat Mission is its system of revealing information about enemyunits, such as position, type, and actions. Unlike most other games, CM:BN useswhat we call Relative Spotting instead of Absolute Spotting. In an AbsoluteSpotting system, when an individual friendly unit “senses” something, thatinformation is instantly, and perfectly, available to all units on its side. Itdoesn’t matter where the other units are or what sorts of communicationscapabilities they have. Relative Spotting, on the other hand, keeps the unit’s“sensed” information from moving to other units unless there is some way ofcommunicating it to them. In other words, when you click on a unit in CM:BN youget to see what it sees relative to what it knows. If the unit is isolated fromthe Chain of Command it wouldn’t be able to target something it didn’t spotitself, for example.
Good quality C2 between theright units becomes of paramount importance when Air or Artillery Support arerequired. Not all units are equally capable, or even able, to direct such firemissions. Picture that critical unit, with the ability to possibly change thecourse of the battle, cut off from the Chain of Command. How can it call inSupport if it can’t communicate with anybody?Well, it can’t!
一个部队越好的组织和联系,就能越好地相互沟通关键信息。信息传递的过程对玩家而言并不明显,但结果很明显。好的组织和沟通有三个重要的益处:定位敌军单位,呼叫支援,维持纪律。
CM最重要的其中一个方面是揭示敌军单位信息的系统,比如位置,类型,和行动。不像其他大部分游戏,CM:BN使用相对定位代替绝对定位。在绝对定位系统中,当个别友军单位识别了某物,这信息即刻完美地被所有本方单位获取。其他单位在什么位置或使用什么类型的联系方式,都无所谓。另一方面,相对定位系统要求一定的沟通途径,才能把识别信息传达给其他单位。换句话说,当你点击一个单位,你看到的是它所看到并了解到的。例如,如果一个单位脱离了指挥链,那它不能瞄准未曾亲自定位的目标。
请求空中和炮火支援的时候,正确单位之间高质量的C2变得至关重要。不是所有单位都同样胜任(有些单位甚至都没有能力)指引这样的火力支援任务。Balabalabala
Note: On-map mortars can fireindirect even if they are out of
command & control and lack a radio, provided that the
spotter is within 50m.
即使脱离了C2并且没有无线电,只要负责定位目标的单位在50米内,地图上的迫击炮也能够间接射击。
Lastly, maintaining C2 isimportant for keeping unit cohesion intact. Units tend to get jumpy when theydon’t know what the friendly units around them are up to, or where theirsuperiors are, or what the enemy might be trying to do at that moment. WithoutC2, the imagination can run a bit wild,so to speak, and the unit may beimagining the worst scenario. Perhaps all its buddies withdrew and forgot totell it to pull back? Maybe the HQ was wiped out and nobody higher up knowsabout those tanks coming down the road, and therefore no help is on the way? Well-disciplinedunits hold up better under these circumstances, of course, but every unit hasits breaking point. If it has contact with its fellow forces and feelssupported, things are less stressful.
最后,要保持单位完美凝聚,维持C2很重要。如果不知道周围的友军在做什么,或者上级在哪里,或者敌军当前可能在采取什么行动,单位就容易变得神经脆弱。脱离了C2,就会胡思乱想,可以说,单位可能会想象最坏的情境。Blablablabla训练有素的单位在这种情况下能较好撑住,但所有单位都有它的极限。Blablablabla


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论坛精英会员英雄勋章-铜一级勇气勋章

 楼主| 发表于 2018-6-30 18:40:21 | 显示全部楼层
LEADER部分翻译

每个单位都有人负责指挥它的士兵,虽然不总是同一类型的领导者。领导者给士兵提供指引。他们维持队伍的纪律,指引更有效的火力,跟其他领导者保持联系。你失去的领导者越多,就越难维持C2。
领导力的影响以领导力修正的方式体现在单位信息面板上。修正值越好,领导者就能越有效地保持事情不出差错。这些修正值包括+2,+1,0,-1,-2。这意味着领导者可能对领导力毫无影响(0级),甚至有消极影响(-1或-2)。任何在军队服役过或研究过军事史的人,都知道有些人就不该叫他负责任何事,除非是洗盘子(而你一定不想用那些盘子吃东西)。CM忠实模拟了这些可悲的领导者。
游戏中的领导者有两种:单位领导者和辅助领导者。单位的领导者训练有素并且有合适的军衔以指挥分配到的单位。辅助领导者经过类似的训练,能力相近,但军衔较低而且可能不具备全部必要的技能来长期指挥一个单位。虽然如此,辅助领导者在战斗中通常有同样的机会成为一个好的领导者,只要单位领导者遭受伤亡后他做好该做的事。
一个班通常有一个单位领导者负责A队;一个辅助领导者负责B队。当一个班被拆分,通常如兵器班,意味着指挥职责也被拆分了。如果一个领导者中弹倒下,另一个不会接替他的职责,因为被拆分后,他们就被认定为完全分开的单位。
当战斗开始,单位信息面板上显示的名字和军衔,就是该单位当前的最高领导者。当这个领导者在战斗中倒下,替代者者接管指挥,名字和军衔就会更换。

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论坛精英会员英雄勋章-铜一级勇气勋章

 楼主| 发表于 2018-6-30 18:41:08 | 显示全部楼层
基础训练任务2

任务2:射击场MISSION 2: FIRING RANGE弹药输送队AMMO SHARING AND AMMO BEARER TEAMS
班组武器相当重。他们也趋于耗尽可憎的弹药量。因此,CM:BN里的班组武器配有弹药输送队;这个独立的单位用来搬运额外的弹药,并帮助武器组防御攻击。查看你的迫击炮组的弹药。每组只携带10-20发81mm迫击炮弹。而战斗双方的弹药输送队每个携带炮弹40发。把弹药输送队移到每个迫击炮旁边,他们就会自动给迫击炮组分配弹药。这种弹药分享行为适用于大部分单位。
呼叫火力CALL FOR FIRE
你的迫击炮需要一个定位者,才能间接打击目标。指挥组和前哨观察组(FO)通常担任定位者;其他单位大都不行。迫击炮组必须能和定位者联络。联络方式有两种,要么是迫击炮组足够靠近定位者(大约50m),可以使用视觉或呼喊进行联络,要么迫击炮组有无线电联系定位者。
在教学例子里,迫击炮通过无线电联系火线上的FO小组:FO通过无线电联系Section HQ,再传达到迫击炮。【译者注:也就是说,定位者并不一定要直接联系迫击炮组。是不是只要两者在通畅的指挥链里面,不管相隔几个层级,都可以联系上?】
选择FO小组(他们的图标像一副双筒望远镜)。FO小组极具价值,专门执行呼叫火力的任务,比指挥组更快。有时候他们可以调动更强有力的大炮,而指挥组却不能。小心保护他们!遵循以下步骤来呼叫火力:
1.点击大炮图标(位于特殊武器面板的上方)。火力任务界面出现。选择一个迫击炮格子。火力任务有一些必须明确的参数。这些参数将决定火力任务的特性。
2.Target Type(目标类型),选择Point Target;对于地图上的迫击炮这个选择没问题,但我们会马上回到目标类型参数。光标会变成橙色,左键点击选择目标。
3.Mission(任务),选择Medium(普通)。这规定迫击炮火力的密集度。Heavy(重)是尽可能快地开炮,而Harass(骚扰)是偶尔射击,节约弹药。Emergency(紧急)任务缩短呼叫火力的时间,风险是精度更差;只有在真正紧急的时候才使用。
4. Duration(持续时间),规定炮击的时长。Quick fire只持续很短的时间, 而Maximum则打完所有炮弹。
5.点击Confirm确认火力任务。如果你弄糟了什么,或者改变了主意,可以选择cancel,然后重新开始呼叫。窗口也会告诉你大约多久之后火力开始实施。在目标和定位者、迫击炮之间分别有一条绿线。大炮总是在地图之外,而且通常只能由FO小组呼叫。榴弹炮组包括几门炮,我们可以选择不同的Target Type(目标类型)。Point Target 打击一个点,Area Target打击圆形区域,Linear Target打击一条线。

战斗命令COMBAT COMMANDS
直瞄武器的浅蓝色射击线表示可以射击目标,深蓝色和粉色表示射击线上某个地方被阻碍,不能射击目标。灰色射击线表示你可以下令射击,但不是该单位的所有成员都能看见目标并向其射击。
选择地面或建筑作为目标,单位会执行范围射击(AreaFire),用火力覆盖附近地形,如果目标区域有敌人,就可能被火力扫到。

更多玩具MORE TOYS!
通常你的单位会聪明地自动射击敌人,只是偶尔需要你下指令攻击目标。有时你想要让单位集中火力打击具体区域。CoverArc命令就是为此而设。执行CoverArc命令的单位通常只是攻击指定区域内的敌人,除非它感到即刻面临区域外的敌人威胁。可以用CeaseFire命令来撤销CoverArc命令。
即使是重型坦克,侧面和背后也比较薄弱。
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